October Revolution

The October Revolution is a euphemism, an alternative name for the Bolshevik Revolution, which was the coup d'état, the take over of Russia after the February Revolution, the genuine Russian revolution which happened in February 1917. When that event occurred it came as a total surprise to Lenin in Zurich and to Trotsky in America.

They rushed back to take over and destroy what might have become a decent democracy. The Sealed Train tells us about Lenin's journey from Zürich to the Finland Station. Trotsky almost did not make it back. He was captured by MI5 then released, sad to say. Claude Dansey of MI6 fouled up. A contemporary report tells us How the Bolsheviks took the Winter Palace  It was in fact a Bolshevik coup d'état. The Bolsheviks were largely Jews. Their attack led to the Russian Civil War and the murder of some 85 to 100 million people. See e.g. The Black Book of Communism.

Notice well that the Wiki is evasive about why this coup d'état was called the October Coup. The Wiki is in propaganda mode.

MI5 Captured Trotsky On His Way To Revolt In Russia
QUOTE
Leon Trotsky, the creator of the Red Army, was detained on the orders of MI5 in a move which could have prevented him from playing any part in the Russian revolution and its aftermath,............. Papers made available at the Public Record Office show how MI5, and the French and Spanish security services, monitored Trotsky's movement in the months leading to the revolution in February 1917 which overthrew the Tsarist regime.

The previous autumn Trotsky was expelled from France after his Paris paper, Nashe Slovo (Our Word) was suppressed on the grounds it was subversive and anti-war. He set off for Madrid, "surrounded by spies" who, he noted, regarded him as a "dangerous terrorist agitator". [ He "was" - "Editor" The so called "Grauniad" wants the "peasants" to think it knows better. ]. In Madrid he was immediately arrested, jailed, and taken to Cadiz where he was told he was going to be put on a boat to Havana. But after angry protests, Trotsky was allowed to remain a few more days and sail, instead, to New York........

MI5 continued to monitor Trotsky's activities. In a telegram from New York to London, dated March 22, 1917, an MI5 agent warned: "An important movement has been started here among Socialists, with a view to getting back Revolutionary Socialists into Russia ... with [the] object of establishing a Republic and initiating Peace movement; also of promoting Socialistic Revolutions in other countries, including the United States". The "main leader", the telegram noted, "is Trotsky", who was planning to leave the US for Russia. A few days later, the MI5 agent dispatched a message to London saying Trotsky had set sail "with $10,000 subscribed by Socialists and Germans" on the way to Petrograd, now St Petersburg.

The agent ordered the ship to be detained when it stopped at Halifax in Canada. Trotsky was arrested with five Russian comrades. There he could have remained, had it not been for the intervention of the Secret Intelligence Service, MI6.
UNQUOTE
Errare human est. Deciding which source got it right leaves scope for getting it wrong.

 

October Revolution ex Wiki
QUOTE
The October Revolution (Russian: Октябрьская революция, Oktyabr'skaya revolyutsiya), also known as the Russian Revolution, Great October Socialist Revolution, Red October or the Bolshevik Revolution, was a political revolution and a part of the Russian Revolution of 1917. It took place with an armed insurrection in Petrograd traditionally dated to 25 October 1917 Julian calendar (7 November 1917 Gregorian calendar). It was the second phase of the Russian Revolution, after the February Revolution of the same year. The October Revolution in Petrograd overthrew the Russian Provisional Government and gave the power to the local soviets dominated by Bolsheviks. As the revolution was not universally recognized outside of Petrograd there followed the struggles of the Russian Civil War (1917–1922) and the creation of the Soviet Union in 1922.

The revolution was led by the Bolsheviks, who used their influence in the Petrograd Soviet to organize the armed forces. Bolshevik Red Guards forces under the Military Revolutionary Committee began the takeover of government buildings on 24 October. On 25 October (Julian Calendar) the Winter Palace (the seat of the Provisional government located in Petrograd, then capital of Russia), was captured.

Etymology
Initially, the event was referred to as the October coup (Октябрьский переворот) or the Uprising of 25th, as seen in contemporary documents (for example, in the first editions of Lenin's complete works). With time, the term October Revolution came into use – it is also known as the "November Revolution," having occurred in November according to the Gregorian Calendar – and the event became seen as an event of major importance [ because it was - Editor ].
UNQUOTE
That is from the Wiki. Believe what you will of it.

 

October Revolution - ex Wiki
This article is about the Soviet Revolution of 1917
The October Revolution (Russian: Октябрьская революция, Oktyabr'skaya revolyutsiya), also known as the Great October Socialist Revolution, Red October or the Bolshevik Revolution, was a political revolution and a part of the Russian Revolution of 1917. It took place with an armed insurrection in Petrograd traditionally dated to 25 October 1917 Gregorian Calendar (O.S.), which corresponds with 7 November 1917 New Style (N.S.).

It was the second phase of the Russian Revolution, after the February Revolution of the same year. The October Revolution in Petrograd overthrew the Russian Provisional Government and gave the power to the local soviets dominated by Bolsheviks. As the revolution was not universally recognized outside of Petrograd there followed the struggles of the Russian Civil War (1917–1922) and the creation of the Soviet Union in 1922.

The revolution was led by the Bolsheviks, who used their influence in the Petrograd Soviet to organize the armed forces. Bolshevik Red Guards forces under the Military Revolutionary Committee began the takeover of government buildings on 24 October 1917 (O.S.). The following day the Winter Palace (the seat of the Provisional government located in Petrograd, then capital of Russia), was captured.

Background
A nationwide crisis had developed in Russia affecting social, economic, and political relations. The policies of the Russian Provisional Government had brought the country to the brink of catastrophe. Disorder in industry and transport had intensified, and difficulties in obtaining provisions had increased........

By October 1917 there had been over four thousand peasant uprisings against landowners. When the Provisional Government sent out punitive detachments it only enraged the peasants. The garrisons in Petrograd, Moscow, and other cities, the Northern and Western fronts, and the sailors of the Baltic Fleet in September openly declared through their elected representative body Tsentrobalt that they did not recognize the authority of the Provisional Government and would not carry out any of its commands.
UNQUOTE
It was not a lot of fun for people. The Cheka or secret police were very successful in causing general gloom.

 

Bolsheviks
Are the comedians who brought us the Bolshevik Revolution with millions of dead to prove it. They were not all Jews.

 

Guardian correspondent kept under surveillance
QUOTE
A correspondent for the Manchester Guardian who worked in Russia during the Bolshevik revolution was among those kept under close surveillance by MI5 in the inter-war years, according to documents put on display by the public record office today. One of the largest releases of personal files - covering ministers, academics, foreign spies, communists, fascists and pacifists - shows the extent of security operations against suspected domestic "subversives".

Morgan Philips Price, the Manchester Guardian's intermittent correspondent in Petrograd, was accused by the security services of Bolshevik sympathies [ and quite rightly too ].

A Foreign Office telegram in 1917 alleged he was "actively associating himself with anti-English propaganda in Petrograd and he has written a violent pamphlet against English intervention [against the Bolsheviks] at Murmansk."  Others targeted included Stafford Cripps, later a trade minister, and Shapuri Saklatvala, the first communist MP to sit at Westminster.
UNQUOTE
This could have been Arthur Ransome who wrote some splendid children's books including Swallows and Amazons. He also played chess with Lenin then married Trotsky's secretary. MI5 exonerated him later. Price was rather obnoxious.

 

Sir George Buchanan - British Ambassador To Russia
QUOTE
George Buchanan was born in Copenhagen in 1854. The son of the British Ambassador in Denmark, Buchanan also became a diplomat. In 1908 he was appointed as minister in the Hague.

In 1910 Buchanan was appointed as the British Ambassador in Russia. His friend, Harold Williams, a journalist working for the Daily Chronicle, kept him informed of the political developments in Russia and arranged for his to meet some of the leading reformists in the country.

He reported back to London on the different reformers. He said of Irakli Tsereteli: "Tsereteli had a refined and sympathetic personality. He attracted me by his transparent honesty of purpose and his straightforward manner. He was, like so many other Russian Socialists, an Idealist; but though I do not reproach him with this, he made the mistake of approaching grave problems of practical policies from a purely theoretical standpoint." He was much more concerned about the possible impact of Victor Chernov, a leading figure in the Socialist Revolutionary Party: "Chernov was a man of strong character and considerable ability. He belonged to the advanced wing of the SR party, and advocated the immediate nationalization of the land and the division among the peasants awaiting the decision of the Consistent Assembly. He was generally regarded as dangerous and untrustworthy."

Buchanan became a much more important figure in Russia in the build-up to the First World War. He sent regular reports to Sir Edward Grey, the British foreign minister. In July 1914 he wrote about negotiations with members of the Russian government: "As they both continued to press me to declare our complete solidarity with them, I said that I thought you might be prepared to represent strongly at Vienna and Berlin danger to European peace of an Austrian attack on Serbia. You might perhaps point out that it would in all probability force Russia to intervene, that this would bring Germany and France into the field, and that if war became general, it would be difficult for England to remain neutral. Minister for Foreign Affairs said that he hoped that we would in any case express strong reprobation of Austria's action. If war did break out, we would sooner or later be dragged into it, but if we did not make common cause with France and Russia from the outset we should have rendered war more likely."

Buchanan also became very concerned about the influence of Grigory Rasputin who was against Russian involvement in the war. It has been argued that Buchanan became involved with the British Secret Intelligence Service in Petrograd, under the command Lieutenant-Colonel Samuel Hoare. Members of this unit included Oswald Rayner, John Scale, Cudbert Thornhill and Stephen Alley. Hoare became friendly with Vladimir Purishkevich and in November 1916 he was told about the plot to "liquidate" Rasputin. Hoare later recalled that Purishkevich's tone "was so casual that I thought his words were symptomatic of what everyone was thinking and saying rather than the expression of a definitely thought-out plan."

John Scale recorded: "German intrigue was becoming more intense daily. Enemy agents were busy whispering of peace and hinting how to get it by creating disorder, rioting, etc. Things looked very black. Romania was collapsing, and Russia herself seemed weakening. The failure in communications, the shortness of foods, the sinister influence which seemed to be clogging the war machine, Rasputin the drunken debaucher influencing Russia's policy, what was to the be the end of it all?" Michael Smith, the author of Six: A History of Britain's Secret Intelligence Service (2010) has argued: "The key link between the British secret service bureau in Petrograd and the Russians plotting Rasputin's demise was Rayner through his relationship with Prince Yusupov, the leader of the Russian plotters."

Grigory Rasputin was assassinated on 29th December, 1916. Soon afterwards Prince Felix Yusupov, Vladimir Purishkevich, the leader of the monarchists in the Duma, the Grand Duke Dmitri Pavlovich Romanov, Dr. Stanislaus de Lazovert and Lieutenant Sergei Mikhailovich Sukhotin, an officer in the Preobrazhensky Regiment, confessed to being involved in the killing.

Samuel Hoare reacted angrily when Tsar Nicholas II suggested to the British ambassador, George Buchanan, that Rayner, was involved in the plot to kill Rasputin. Hoare described the story as "incredible to the point of childishness". However, Michael Smith has speculated that Rayner was at the scene of the crime: "He (Rasputin) was shot several tunes, with three different weapons, with all the evidence suggesting that Rayner fired the final fatal shot, using his personal Webley revolver."

Buchanan began to fear that Tsar Nicholas II might be overthrown and urged him to bring in reforms. He reported on a meeting he had with the Tsar in January 1917: "I went on to say that there was now a barrier between him and his people, and that if Russia was still united as a nation it was in opposing his present policy. The people, who have rallied so splendidly round their Sovereign on the outbreak of war, had seen how hundreds of thousands of lives had been sacrificed on account of the lack of rifles and munitions; how, owing to the incompetence of the administration, there had been a severe food crisis." Buchanan urged the Tsar to take notice of what was being said in the Duma: "The Duma, I had reason to know, would be satisfied if His Majesty would but appoint as President of the Council a man whom both he and the nation could have confidence, and would allow him to choose his own colleagues."

Although a man of deeply held conservative views, Buchanan developed good relationships with liberal politicians in Russia during the revolution and welcomed the appointment of Prince George Lvov as head the new Provisional Government in Russia as he refused to withdraw the country from the First World War. He told the British government: "Lvov does not favour the idea of taking strong measures at present, either against the Soviet or the Socialist propaganda in the army. On my telling him that the Government would never be masters of the situation so long as they allowed themselves to be dictated to by a rival organization, he said that the Soviet would die a natural death, that the present agitation in the army would pass, and that the army would then be in a better position to help the Allies to win the war than it would have been under the old regime."

By the summer of 1917 Buchanan realised that the experiment in democracy was not working: "The military outlook is most discouraging. Nor do I take an optimistic view of the immediate future of the country. Russia is not ripe for a purely democratic form of government, and for the next few years we shall probably see a series of revolutions or counter-revolutions. A vast Empire like this, with all its different races, will not long hold together under a Republic. Disintegration will, in my opinion, sooner or later set in, even under a federal system."

Prince George Lvov was replaced by Alexander Kerensky on 8th July, 1917. Buchanan reported back to London: "From the very first Kerensky had been the central figure of the revolutionary drama and had, alone among his colleagues, acquired a sensible hold on the masses. An ardent patriot, he desired to see Russia carry on the war till a democratic peace had been won; while he wanted to combat the forces of disorder so that his country should not fall a prey to anarchy. In the early stages of the revolution he displayed an energy and courage which marked him out as the one man capable of securing the attainment of these ends."

However, Buchanan, feared the growing support for the Bolsheviks: The Bolsheviks, who form a compact minority, have alone a definite political programme. They are more active and better organized than any other group, and until they and the ideas which they represent are finally squashed, the country will remain a prey to anarchy and disorder. If the Government are not strong enough to put down the Bolsheviks by force, at the risk of breaking altogether with the soviet, the only alternative will be a Bolshevik Government."

Buchanan was horrified by the Russian Revolution but recognised the talents of Vladimir Lenin and Leon Trotsky. In his book, My Mission to Russia and Other Diplomatic Memories (1923) he explained: "I readily admit that Lenin and Trotsky are both extraordinary men. The Ministers, in whose hands Russia had placed her destinies, had all proved to be weak and incapable, and now by some cruel turn of fate the only two really strong men whom she had produced during the war were destined to consummate her ruin. On their advent to power, however, they were still an unknown quantity, and nobody expected that they would have a long tenure of office."

George Buchanan died in 1924.
UNQUOTE
Sir George was a man of sound  judgment.

 

Errors & omissions, broken links, cock ups, over-emphasis, malice [ real or imaginary ] or whatever; if you find any I am open to comment.
 
Email me at Mike Emery. All financial contributions are cheerfully accepted. If you want to keep it private, use my PGP KeyHome Page

Updated on 13/01/2015 10:09