Prime Minister

Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, usually shortened to Prime Minister or PM is the ruler, who exerts power through the Civil Service while Elizabeth II, the Queen is the  head of state with mainly ceremonial duties; albeit Her important duties are less obvious.

Prime Minister ex Wiki
QUOTE
A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. In many systems, the prime minister selects and can dismiss other members of the cabinet, and allocates posts to members within the Government. In most systems, the prime minister is the presiding member and chairman of the cabinet. In a minority of systems, notably in semi-presidential systems of government, a prime minister is the official who is appointed to manage the civil service and  execute the directives of the head of state.

In parliamentary systems fashioned after the Westminster system, the prime minister is the presiding and actual head of the government and head of the executive branch. In such systems, the head of state or the head of state's official representative (i.e. the monarch, president, or governor-general) usually holds a purely ceremonial position. The prime minister is often, but not always, a member of parliament and is expected with other ministers to ensure the passage of bills through the legislature. In some monarchies the monarch may also exercise executive powers (known as the royal prerogative) which are constitutionally vested in the crown and can be exercised without the approval of parliament.

As well as being head of government, a prime minister may have other roles or titles - the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, for example, is also First Lord of the Treasury and Minister for the Civil Service. Prime ministers may take other ministerial posts - for example during the Second World War Winston Churchill was also Minister of Defence (although there was then no Ministry of Defence). The Prime Minister of Australia, Gough Whitlam, was famous for forming his cabinet entirely of himself and his deputy as soon as the overall result of the 1972 federal election was beyond doubt (see First Whitlam Ministry).
UNQUOTE
The Wiki at its nonpartisan best. Actually the Queen, Elizabeth II has more than ceremonial functions. It is her role and her duty to ride shot gun on the PM, to make him play by the rules. She has failed us grossly and utterly.

 

1957 - 1963       Harold Macmillan
1963 - 1964       Alec Douglas-Home
1964 - 1970       Wilson
1970 - 1974       Heath
1974 - 1976       Wilson
1976 - 1979       Callaghan
1979 -1990        Maggie
1990 - 1997       Major
1997 - 2007       Blair
2007 - 2010       Brown
2010-06-11        Cameron

1





945 (MPs)
5 July 1945
Clement Attlee Labour 146 72.8

 

 

 

1801 the right to vote in the United Kingdom was a severely restricted practice. Universal suffrage, on an equal basis for men and women over the age of 21, was established in 1929. Before 1918, general elections did not occur on a single day and polling was spread over several weeks. The date given in the table for elections prior to 1918 is the date Parliament assembled after the election, which could be in the year after the general election.

The majority figure given is for the difference between the number of MPs elected at the general election from the party (or parties) of the government, as opposed to all other parties (some of which may have been giving some support to the government, but were not participating in a coalition). The Speaker is excluded from the calculation. If the party in office changed the figure is re-calculated, but no allowance is made for changes after the general election. No attempt is made to define a majority before 1832, when the Reform Act disenfranchised the rotten boroughs; before then the Tory party had an undemocratically entrenched dominance. Particularly in the early part of the period the complexity of factional alignments, with both the Whig and Tory traditions tending to have some members in government and others in opposition factions simultaneously, make it impossible to produce an accurate majority figure. The figures between 1832 and about 1859 are approximate due to problems of defining what was a party in government, as the source provides figures for all Liberals rather than just the Whig component in what developed into the Liberal Party. The Whig and Peelite Prime Ministers in the table below are regarded as having the support of all Liberals.

Election Date Prime Minister(s) (during term) Winning Party Majority Turnout (%)[5] Notes
1802 (MPs) 22 July 1802 Henry Addington
William Pitt the Younger[6]
The Lord Grenville
Tory
Tory (Pittite who called himself a Whig)
Whig
...
1806 (MPs) 17 November 1806 The Lord Grenville
The Duke of Portland
Whig
Tory (Pittite who called himself a Whig)
...
1807 (MPs) 22 June 1807 The Duke of Portland
Spencer Perceval[7]
The Earl of Liverpool
Tory (Pittite who called himself a Whig)
Tory
Tory
...
1812 (MPs) 24 November 1812 The Earl of Liverpool Tory ...
1818 (MPs) 4 August 1818 The Earl of Liverpool Tory ...
1820 (MPs) 16 January 1821 The Earl of Liverpool Tory ...
1826 (MPs) 19 June 1826 The Earl of Liverpool
George Canning[8]
The Viscount Goderich
The Duke of Wellington
Tory
Tory
Tory
Tory
...
1830 (MPs) 9 August 1830 The Duke of Wellington[9]
The Earl Grey
Tory
Whig
...
1831 (MPs) 25 July 1831 The Earl Grey Whig 136
At this point, the Reform Act 1832 gave suffrage to propertied male adults and disenfranchised almost all of the rotten boroughs.
1832 (MPs) 29 January 1833 The Earl Grey
The Viscount Melbourne[10]
The Duke of Wellington
Sir Robert Peel
Whig
Whig
Conservative
Conservative
225 (L)
−308 (C)
1835 (MPs) 19 February 1835 Sir Robert Peel[11]
The Viscount Melbourne
Conservative
Whig
−113 (C)
113 (L)
1837 (MPs) 15 November 1837 The Viscount Melbourne[12] Whig 29
1841 (MPs) 19 August 1841 The Viscount Melbourne[13]
Sir Robert Peel[14]
Lord John Russell
Whig
Conservative
Whig

77
1847 (MPs) 9 August 1847 Lord John Russell[15]
The Earl of Derby
Whig
Conservative
−72
1852 (MPs) 4 November 1852 The Earl of Derby[16]
The Earl of Aberdeen[17]
The Viscount Palmerston
Conservative
Peelite
Whig
7
1857 (MPs) 30 April 1857 The Viscount Palmerston[18]
The Earl of Derby
Whig
Conservative
100
1859 (MPs) 31 May 1859 The Earl of Derby[19]
The Viscount Palmerston
Conservative
Liberal

59
1865 (MPs) 11 July 1865 The Viscount Palmerston[20]
The Earl Russell[21]
The Earl of Derby
Benjamin Disraeli
Liberal
Liberal
Conservative
Conservative
81
At this point, the Reform Act 1867 significantly widened the suffrage and disenfranchised more smaller boroughs.
1868 (MPs) 10 December 1868 William Ewart Gladstone Liberal 115
1874 (MPs) 5 March 1874 Benjamin Disraeli Conservative 49
1880 (MPs) 29 April 1880 William Ewart Gladstone[22]
The Marquess of Salisbury
Liberal
Conservative
51
At this point, the Representation of the People Act 1884 extended the borough franchise of 1867 to the counties,
increasing the electorate to about 5,500,000 men.
1885 (MPs) 12 January 1886 The Marquess of Salisbury[23]
William Ewart Gladstone[24]
Conservative
Liberal
−172
1886 (MPs) 5 August 1886 The Marquess of Salisbury Conservative 116
1892 (MPs) 4 August 1892 The Marquess of Salisbury[25]
William Ewart Gladstone
The Earl of Rosebery[26]
The Marquess of Salisbury[27]
Conservative
Liberal
Liberal
Conservative

−126

1895 (MPs) 12 August 1895 The Marquess of Salisbury Conservative 153
1900 (MPs) 3 December 1900 The Marquess of Salisbury
Arthur Balfour
Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman[28]
Conservative
Conservative
Liberal
135
The "khaki" election.
1906 (MPs) 13 February 1906 Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman
H. H. Asquith
Liberal 129
January 1910 (MPs) 15 February 1910 H. H. Asquith Liberal −122
December 1910 (MPs) 31 January 1911 H. H. Asquith
David Lloyd George
Liberal −126
The Parliament Act 1911 reduced the maximum life of a Parliament from seven years to five, however the election that would have been due by 1915 as a result of the Act was not held due to World War I (19141918)

At this point, the Representation of the People Act 1918 gave suffrage to most of the adult population (men over 21, women over 30).

1918 (MPs) 14 December 1918 David Lloyd George
Andrew Bonar Law[29]
Liberal (Coalition government)
Conservative
238
57.2
The "coupon" election
1922 (MPs) 15 November 1922 Andrew Bonar Law
Stanley Baldwin
Conservative 74 73
1923 (MPs) 6 December 1923 Stanley Baldwin[30]
Ramsay MacDonald
Conservative
Labour

−98
71.1
1924 (MPs) 29 October 1924 Stanley Baldwin Conservative 210 77
At this point, the Representation of the People Act 1928 gave universal suffrage to the adult population over 21.
1929 (MPs) 30 May 1929 Ramsay MacDonald Labour −42 76.3 The "flapper" election
1931 (MPs) 27 October 1931 Ramsay MacDonald National Labour (National Government) 492 76.4
1935 (MPs) 14 November 1935 Stanley Baldwin
Neville Chamberlain
Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
Conservative (National Government)
Conservative (National Government)
Conservative (Wartime Coalition)
Conservative (Caretaker Government)
242
242
609
242
71.1
The election due by 1940 was not held due to World War II (19391945)
1945 (MPs) 5 July 1945 Clement Attlee Labour 146 72.8
At this point, the Representation of the People Act 1948 abolished plural voting,
university constituencies and the few remaining two-member constituencies.
1950 (MPs) 23 February 1950 Clement Attlee Labour 5 83.9
1951 (MPs) 25 October 1951 Sir Winston Churchill
Sir Anthony Eden
Conservative 17 82.6
1955 (MPs) 26 May 1955 Sir Anthony Eden
Harold Macmillan
Conservative 60 76.8
1959 (MPs) 8 October 1959 Harold Macmillan
Sir Alec Douglas-Home
Conservative 100 78.7
1964 (MPs) 15 October 1964 Harold Wilson Labour 4 77.1
1966 (MPs) 31 March 1966 Harold Wilson Labour 98 75.8
At this point, the Representation of the People Act 1969 gave suffrage to the adult population over 18 years old.
1970 (MPs) 18 June 1970 Edward Heath Conservative 30 72
February 1974 (MPs) 28 February 1974 Harold Wilson Labour (minority government) −33 78.8 Hung Parliament
October 1974 (MPs) 10 October 1974 Harold Wilson
James Callaghan
Labour 3 72.8
1979 (MPs) 3 May 1979 Margaret Thatcher Conservative 43 76
1983 (MPs) 9 June 1983 Margaret Thatcher Conservative 144 72.7
1987 (MPs) 11 June 1987 Margaret Thatcher
John Major
Conservative 102 75.3
1992 (MPs) 9 April 1992 John Major Conservative 21 77.7
1997 (MPs) 1 May 1997 Tony Blair Labour 179 71.4
2001 (MPs) 7 June 2001 Tony Blair Labour 167 59.4
2005 (MPs) 5 May 2005 Tony Blair
Gordon Brown
Labour 66 61.4
2010 (MPs) 6 May 2010[31] David Cameron Conservative (formed coalition with Liberal Democrats) 78 65.1 Hung Parliament
At this point, the Fixed-term Parliaments Act 2011 was passed. Elections are now every 5 years, barring parliamentary vote. Before this, the election could be called at any point the Prime Minister wished.
Next general election By 7 May 2015

|Note: A negative majority means that there was a hung parliament (or minority parliament) following that election. For example, in the 1929 election, Labour was 42 seats short of forming a majority, and so its majority is listed as −42. In the case of the 2010 election, the combined majority for the coalition was 78.

See also