Democracy is a Greek word and a Greek invention. It means rule of the people. It came in an age of tyrants, kings, princes, men who ruled by force of personality or force of arms. People voted, people lived with the consequences of their votes. People did not include:-
Dead men
It did include men who had done their military service. If they voted for war, they went to war. Power matched responsibility. The intellectual basis came from Solon's Ten Commandments, which led to direct democracy, as distinct from Representative Democracy where voting takes place at second hand, which makes it easy to corrupt using bribery, blackmail & flattery. These things happen as a matter of course in modern politics.  The Wiki also gives us Liberal Democracy as meaning honest Representative Democracy; another triumph of optimism over reality.

The methods of perverting modern governments were worked out by Antonio Gramsci, the leading theoretician of the communists in Italy and used by the Jews in their Long March Through The Institutions. You might feel that real democracy embraces the Consent Of The GovernedRight Of Revolution & the Declaration of Independence.

The United Nations have taken a position on the Right Of Self-Determination. It will be a substandard approach to decent government.

The only civilized country that has something like real democracy is Switzerland where men have their rifles at home, ready to use. It works fairly well. If you want peace, prepare for war. Liberal Democracy is, essentially a propaganda term, one to treat with suspicion.

Dictatorship Of The Proletariat
Is a Marxist version of democracy. It is, naturally enough dictatorship imposed by terror.


Democracy In Athens [ circa 508 BC - 322 BC ]
Athenian democracy developed in the Greek city-state of Athens, comprising the central city-state of Athens and the surrounding territory of Attica, around 550 BC. Athens is one of the first known democracies. Other Greek cities set up democracies, and even though most followed an Athenian model, none were as powerful, stable, nor as well-documented as that of Athens.

It remains a unique and intriguing experiment in direct democracy, a political system in which the people do not elect representatives to vote on their behalf but vote on legislation and executive bills in their own right. Participation was by no means open, but the in-group of participants was constituted with no reference to economic class and they participated on a large scale. The public opinion of voters was remarkably influenced by the political satire performed by the comic poets at the theatres.[1]

Solon [ he of the Ten Commandments ] (594 BC), Cleisthenes (508/7 BC), and Ephialtes (462 BC) all contributed to the development of Athenian democracy. Historians differ on which of them was responsible for which institution, and which of them most represented a truly democratic movement. It is most usual to date Athenian democracy from Cleisthenes, since Solon's constitution fell and was replaced by the tyranny of Peisistratus, whereas Ephialtes revised Cleisthenes' constitution relatively peacefully. Hipparchus, brother of the tyrant Hippias, was killed by Harmodius and Aristogeiton, who were subsequently honoured by the Athenians for their alleged restoration of Athenian freedom.

The greatest and longest lasting democratic leader was Pericles; after his death, Athenian democracy was twice briefly interrupted by oligarchic revolution towards the end of the Peloponnesian War.. It was modified somewhat after it was restored under Eucleides; the most detailed accounts are of this fourth-century modification rather than the Periclean system. It was suppressed by the Macedonians in 322 BC. The Athenian institutions were later revived, but the extent to which they were a real democracy is debatable.

Size and make-up of the Athenian population
Estimates of the population of ancient Athens vary. During the 4th century BC, there may well have been some 250,000–300,000 people in Attica. Citizen families may have amounted to 100,000 people and out of these some 30,000 will have been the adult male citizens entitled to vote in the assembly. In the mid-5th century the number of adult male citizens was perhaps as high as 60,000, but this number fell precipitously during the Peloponnesian War. This slump was permanent due to the introduction of a stricter definition of citizen described below. From a modern perspective these figures may seem small, but in the world of Greek city-states Athens was huge: most of the thousand or so Greek cities could only muster 1000–1500 adult male citizens and Corinth, a major power, had at most 15,000 but in some very seldom cases more.

The non-citizen component of the population was divided between resident foreigners (metics) and slaves, with the latter perhaps somewhat more numerous. Around 338 BC the orator Hyperides (fragment 13) claimed that there were 150,000 slaves in Attica, but this figure is probably not more than an impression: slaves outnumbered those of citizen stock but did not swamp them. ]

Citizenship in Athens
Only adult male Athenian citizens who had completed their military training as ephebes had the right to vote in Athens. The percentage of the population that actually participated in the government was about 20%. This excluded a majority of the population, namely slaves, freed slaves, children, women and metics. The women had limited rights and privileges and were not really considered citizens. They had restricted movement in public and were very segregated from the men.

Also excluded from voting were citizens whose rights were under suspension (typically for failure to pay a debt to the city: see atimia); for some Athenians this amounted to permanent (and in fact inheritable) disqualification. Still, in contrast with oligarchical societies, there were no real property qualification for voting. (The property classes of Solon's constitution remained on the books, but they fell into disuse.) Given the exclusionary and ancestral conception of citizenship held by Greek city-states, a relatively large portion of the population took part in the government of Athens and of other radical democracies like it.[clarification needed]

At Athens some citizens were far more active than others, but the vast numbers required just for the system to work testify to a breadth of participation among those eligible that greatly surpassed any present day democracy[citation needed]. Athenian citizens had to be descended from citizens—after the reforms of Pericles and Cimon in 450 BC on both sides of the family, excluding the children of Athenian men and foreign women.[clarification needed] Although the legislation was not retrospective, five years later the Athenians removed 5000 from the citizen registers when a free gift of grain arrived for all citizens from an Egyptian king.

Citizenship could be granted by the assembly and was sometimes given to large groups (Plateans in 427 BC, Samians in 405 BC) but, by the 4th century, only to individuals and by a special vote with a quorum of 6000. This was generally done as a reward for some service to the state. In the course of a century, the numbers involved were in the hundreds rather than thousands.
It could be worth having in England.


Is a good idea, one whose time has come. If people want a referendum on something in Switzerland and they get enough signatures, a referendum is held and it has legal force. Representative democracy, the sort we have in England has been scientifically perverted. It is de facto dictatorship. Find out how to make England a better place. Or read the next one.


Active Politics
Democracy is about making the voice of the people heard. Here are some sensible thoughts on being effective.


Democracy And Greece
In what sense can they [ the current inmates of Greece ] be regarded as the legitimate heirs of the ancient Greeks? Not, I think, in the genetic sense. We have no reliable demographic evidence from antiquity, but after the wars of the century around Alexander the Great, the populations of mainland Greece seem to have gone into a steady decline that lasted for a thousand years. By around the time of Christ, the depopulation of the old city states was a matter of general comment by those who lived there and of Roman visitors. It is described in a letter to Cicero. It is implied in an inscription that Nero had placed on the Parthenon. Plutarch ascribes the progressive silencing of the Greek oracles to the diminished need for their services. The great plague of 542 reduced populations right across the Mediterranean world, and would have reduced that of mainland Greece still further. Long before that, however, the majority of those living there might well have been descended less from the nation of Pericles and Demosthenes than from imported slaves and barbarian invaders. Certainly, in the two centuries of disorder that followed the great plague, the territory was almost wholly lost to the Byzantine State. When finally reconquered from the Slavs, it had to be rehellenised from Constantinople........

When Lord Elgin arrived in Athens, perhaps half the population was Moslem—and probably not all of these were Greek converts. Certainly, modern Greece as I have seen it is occupied by a rich ethnic mix that embraces every human shade from Nordic blonde to Moorish brown. Athens itself was largely colonized after the population transfers of the 1920s by Asiatics whose claim to a Greek ethnic connection is less well founded than that of the West Indies blacks to an English connection..........

Nor in the cultural sense are the modern inhabitants of Greece Greek......... Turning to wider differences, the religion of the modern Greeks is that of the Byzantine Church, and the tendency of this, unlike that of the Roman, has been to degrade the intellect..... No wonder the modern Greeks are such happy members of the European Union. Not only does it now hand over "project funding" faster than even they can embezzle it, but it also relieves them from all the trouble of thinking for themselves about politics and economics. No wonder so many of the clever Greeks simply get out of the country.
We know that democracy and other good things originated in Greece from Greeks. Doctor Gabb explains en passant why Greece is now a loss to civilization. We are being degraded by a flood of immigrants just as they were. He does not follow through the ugly realities of Multiculturalism.



Democracy Coming To Central Europe  [ 7 July 2016 ]
On 2 October Austria gets a rerun of the fraudulent election where all of the main political parties proved their corruption by ganging up on the Freedom Party Of Austria & their man, Norbert Hofer.

Angela Merkel, the German dictator is trying inflict Illegal Immigrants on Hungary so the president is hold a referendum on the same day to delegitimize her attempt at Ethnic Fouling & Genocide.



Errors & omissions, broken links, cock ups, over-emphasis, malice [ real or imaginary ] or whatever; if you find any I am open to comment.

Email me at Mike Emery. All financial contributions are cheerfully accepted. If you want to keep it private, use my PGP key. 

Updated  on  Monday, 25 July 2016 20:02:37