Fake News

The Main Stream Media have been marketing the idea of Fake News especially before and after the 2016 presidential election. They have their motives; hatred of Donald Trump being a big one. Diminishing readership does not help; falling sales are bad for morale, employment, bonuses, life styles et cetera. The Wiki enlightens us rather ponderously but does not mention Willi Münzenberg who was Joe Stalin's propaganda master & a very good one. Joe showed his gratitude by having Willi murdered. You might prefer to call misleading stories Disinformation. Take the point that the Internet has brought us freedom of information. We are no longer limited by the stories marketed by the dozens of newspaper owners.

Anyone can publish; millions do. There is rubbish out there on line. Filtering it out is not too difficult. Here are some other sources -  100+ Websites for Readers Who Are Tired of the Mainstream News & Perspectives from Institutions. Read for yourself. Think for yourself. Decide for yourself. I would have included Fred On Everything and The Occidental Observer. Fred does not work for the media any more so he writes what he wants not what they demand. It is much the same for Professor MacDonald at the Observer.

Marxist gobbledygook is out there. Nonsense is swallowed by pretentious fools; people with a sense of humour have proved it by Hoaxes.

 

Fake News ex Wiki
Fake news
is a type of hoax or deliberate spread of misinformation, be it via the traditional news media or via social media, with the intent to mislead in order to gain financially or politically.[1] It often employs eye-catching headlines or entirely fabricated news-stories in order to increase readership and online sharing.[1] Profit is made in a similar fashion to click bait and relies on ad-revenue generated regardless of the veracity of the published stories.[1] Easy access to ad-revenue, increased political polarization and the ubiquity of social media, primarily the Facebook newsfeed have been implicated in the spread of fake news.[2][1] Anonymously hosted websites lacking known publishers have also been implicated, because they make it difficult to prosecute sources of fake news for libel or slander.[3]

Definition
Fake news has been defined as news which is "completely made up and designed to deceive readers to maximize traffic and profit".[4] News satire uses exaggeration and introduces non-factual elements, but is intended to amuse or make a point, not deceive. Propaganda can also be fake news.[4]

The controversy over fake news has been described as both a moral panic and mass hysteria from commentators on both sides of the American political aisle, including Glenn Greenwald, Ed Morrissey, and Jack Shafer.[5] [6] [7][8][9][10][11][excessive citations]

Identifying
The International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) published a summary in diagram form to assist people to recognise fake news.[12] Its main points are:

  1. Consider the source (to understand its mission and purpose)
  2. Read beyond the headline (to understand the whole story)
  3. Check the authors (to see if they are real and credible)
  4. Assess the supporting sources (to ensure they support the claims)
  5. Check the date of publication (to see if the story is relevant and up to date)
  6. Ask if it is a joke (to determine if it is meant to be satire)
  7. Review your own biases (to see if they are affecting your judgement)
  8. Ask experts (to get confirmation from independent people with knowledge).

Historical examples
Ancient and medieval
Significant fake news stories can be traced back to the forged 8th century Donation of Constantine,[13] and Octavian's 1st century campaign of misinformation against Mark Antony.[14]..................

Twenty-first century
In the 21st century, the use and impact of fake news became widespread, as well as the usage of the term. Besides being used to refer to made-up stories designed to deceive readers to maximize traffic and profit, the term was also used to refer to satirical news, whose purpose is not to mislead but rather to inform viewers and share humorous commentary about real news and the mainstream media.[32][33] American examples of satire (as opposed to fake news) include the television show Saturday Night Live's Weekend Update, The Daily Show, The Colbert Report and The Onion newspaper.[34][35] [36]

Russia used "dezinformatsiya" (дезинформация) or disinformation in 2014 to create a counter narrative after Russian-backed Ukrainian rebels shot down Malaysia Airlines Flight 17 using a Russia-supplied missile. False news stories often originated with Russia's state-sponsored television news, RT.[37] In 2016, NATO claimed it had seen a significant rise in Russian propaganda and fake news stories since the invasion of Crimea in 2014.[38] Fake news stories originated from the Russian government officials were also circulated internationally by Reuters news agency and published in the most popular news websites in the United States.[39]

Donald Trump mentioning 'fake news' at the Conservative Political Action Conference in 2017. Video from Voice of America

In the United States in the run-up to the 2016 presidential election, fake news was particularly prevalent, although a working paper by researchers at Stanford University and New York University concluded that fake news had "little to no effect" on its outcome, noting that only 8% of voters read a fake news story, and that recall of the stories was low.[40][41] Germany's Chancellor Angela Merkel became a target for fake news in the run-up to the 2017 German federal election.[42]

In the early weeks of his presidency, U.S. President Donald Trump frequently used the term "fake news" to refer to traditional news media, including singling out the news agency CNN.[43] Linguist George Lakoff says it creates confusion about the words' meaning.[44]

After Republican Colorado State Senator Ray Scott used the term as a reference to a column in the Grand Junction Daily Sentinel, the newspaper's publisher threatened a defamation lawsuit.[45][46]

Impact
The impact of fake news is global and part of a worldwide phenomenon.[47] The capacity of fake news to mislead would always lead to impaired judgements about truth and consequently ill-informed judgements about what actions and policies are appropriate. Fake news is spread through social media and also often through the use of fake news websites, which, in order to gain credibility, specialize in inventing attention-grabbing news, often impersonating well-known news sources.[48][49][50] Fake news has been used in email phishing attacks for many years, with sensationalist fabrications providing incentive for users to click links and have their computers infected with malware.

Involvement of social media
In the 21st century, the capacity to mislead was enhanced by the widespread use of social media. For example, one 21st century that enabled fake news' proliferation was the Facebook newsfeed.[52][53] In late 2016 fake news gained notoriety following the uptick in news content by this means,[54][2] and its prevalence on the micro-blogging site Twitter.[54]

In the United States, a large portion of Americans use Facebook or Twitter to receive news.[55] This, in combination with increased political polarization and filter bubbles, led to a tendency for readers to mainly read headlines. Fake news was implicated in influencing the 2016 American presidential election.[56][57] Fake news saw higher sharing on Facebook than legitimate news stories,[58][59][60] which analysts explained was because fake news often panders to expectations or is otherwise more exciting than legitimate news.[59][18] Facebook itself initially denied this characterization.[61][53] A Pew Research poll conducted in December 2016 found that 64% of U.S. adults believed completely made-up news had caused "a great deal of confusion" about the basic facts of current events, while 24% claimed it had caused "some confusion" and 11% said it had caused "not much or no confusion".[62] Additionally, 23% of those polled admitted they had personally shared fake news, whether knowingly or not.

Research from Northwestern University concluded that 30% of all fake news traffic, as opposed to only 8% of real news traffic, could be linked back to Facebook.[63] Fake news consumers, they concluded, do not exist in a filter bubble; many of them also consume real news from established news sources.[63] The fake news audience is only 10 percent of the real news audience, and most fake news consumers spent a relatively similar amount of time on fake news compared with real news consumers—with the exception of Drudge Report readers, who spent more than 11 times longer reading the website than other users.[63]

After the 2016 American election and the run-up to the German election, Facebook began labeling and warning of inaccurate news[64][65][66] and partnered with independent fact-checkers to label inaccurate news, warning readers before sharing it.[64][65][67]

In China, fake news items have occasionally spread from such sites to more well-established news-sites resulting in scandals including "Pizzagate".[68] In the wake of western events, China's Ren Xianling of the Cyberspace Administration of China suggested a "reward and punish" system be implemented to avoid fake news.[69]

 

 

100+ Websites for Readers Who Are Tired of the Mainstream News & Perspectives from Institutions

Listed below is a chance to recover your senses and to stop being complicit in the way the world is organized presently. The Elites are controlling us by confusion and therefore making us dependent on their Institutions.  It's time to break free and have a Macrocosmic understanding of actual narratives that exist.  The only way to understand yourself, your existence, and reality.

http://whatreallyhappened.com 
http://12160.info/

http://www.truthdig.com/
http://vigilantcitizen.com/
http://www.drudgereport.com/
https://alethonews.wordpress.com/
http://x22report.com/
http://www.activistpost.com/
http://www.globalresearch.ca/latest-news-and-top-stories
http://www.shoah.org.uk/
http://therightscoop.com/
http://hiddensecretsofmoney.com/
http://christophgermann.blogspot.ca/
http://www.zerohedge.com/
http://wolfstreet.com/
http://kingworldnews.com
http://www.shtfplan.com/
http://blacklistednews.com/
http://thesovereigninvestor.com/
http://madashellnews.com/
http://pressfortruth.ca/
http://www.silverdoctors.com/
http://www.marketoracle.co.uk/
http://www.phantomreport.com/
http://essential-intelligence-network.blogspot.ca/
http://www.conspiracyplanet.com/index.cfm
http://wakeupfromyourslumber.com/
http://theeconomiccollapseblog.com/
http://theantimedia.org/
http://financearmageddon.blogspot.ca/
http://rense.com
http://shareverything.com/
https://www.intellihub.com/
http://www.thedailysheeple.com/
https://ashraf62.wordpress.com/
http://www.xrepublic.tv/
http://www.dailyjobcuts.com/
http://whatdoesitmean.com/
http://reason.com/
http://rinf.com/alt-news/
http://consciouslifenews.com/
http://beforeitsnews.com/
http://wealthydebates.com/
http://www.financialsense.com/
http://www.tomatobubble.com/id72.html
http://www.cryptogon.com/
http://asheepnomore.net/
http://savethemales.ca/
http://seekingalpha.com/user/29482055/instablog
http://www.radicalpress.com/
http://stratrisks.com/
http://www.infowars.com/
http://www.thepeterschiffblog.com/
http://www.marcfabernews.com/
http://silveristhenew.com/
http://www.jimrogers1.blogspot.ca/
http://michaelparenti.org/articles.html
http://www.americasfreedomfighters.com/
http://wallstreetexaminer.com/
http://www.thetrumpet.com/
http://www.davidicke.com/
http://www.commondreams.org/
http://smoloko.com/
http://www.truthistreason.net/
http://wariscrime.com/new/
http://www.stevequayle.com/
http://armstrongeconomics.com/armstrong_economics_blog/
http://www.counterpunch.org/
http://aanirfan.blogspot.ca/
http://www.democraticunderground.com/
http://govtslaves.info/
http://www.chomsky.info/articles.htm
http://governamerica.com/
http://www.naturalnews.com/index.html
http://atimes.com/
http://usawatchdog.com/
http://antiwar.com/
http://www.opednews.com/
https://larouchepac.com/
http://altfeed.com/
http://batr.org/
http://commonsenseconspiracy.com/
http://dailyreckoning.com/
http://thecrux.com/
http://wideawakenews.com/
http://www.planbeconomics.com/
http://www.tomdispatch.com/
http://endoftheamericandream.com/
http://rawstory.com/
http://dystopiannightmare.com/
https://talesfromthelou.wordpress.com/
http://redicecreations.com/
http://allnewspipeline.com/index.php?pr=Home
http://21stcenturywire.com/
https://socioecohistory.wordpress.com/
http://www.oilempire.us/index.html

http://investmentwatchblog.com/
http://thomasdishaw.com/
http://whowhatwhy.org/
https://www.libertariannews.org/
http://eventhorizonchronicle.blogspot.ca/
http://pennyforyourthoughts2.blogspot.ca/
http://www.darkmoon.me/
http://www.counterthink.com/
http://rabble.ca/
http://www.zengardner.com/
https://gematriacodes.wordpress.com/
http://www.conspiracyculture.com/
https://www.techdirt.com/
http://www.thecommonsenseshow.com/
http://patriotrising.com/
http://truthstreammedia.com/
http://www.washingtonsblog.com/

- “A government which will turn its tanks upon its people, for any reason, is a government with a taste of blood and a thirst for power and must either be smartly rebuked, or blindly obeyed in deadly fear.”

Posted by MacroCosmic Thinking

 

Errors & omissions, broken links, cock ups, over-emphasis, malice [ real or imaginary ] or whatever; if you find any I am open to comment.
 
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Updated on 21/03/2017 19:52